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Deoxyribo Nucleic acid, or simply DNA, is a nucleic acid that carries the genetic instructions necessary for the vital functions and biological development of all organisms and some viruses. The main role of DNA is the long-term storage of information. DNA contains the information necessary for the construction of other components of the cell such as protein and RNA; It is likened to a mold, template or recipe. DNA fragments containing this genetic information are called genes. But other DNA sequences have structural functions (such as determining the shape of chromosomes), while others help regulate how (in which cells, under what conditions) this genetic information will be used.

Chemically, DNA is made up of two long polymers made up of simple units called nucleotides. The backbones of these polymers consist of sugar and phosphate groups linked together by ester bonds. These two threads run in opposite directions to each other. One of four types of molecules called bases are attached to each sugar group. The sequence of these bases along the backbone of DNA encodes genetic information. During protein synthesis, when this information is read through the genetic code, it determines the amino acid sequence of the proteins. During this process, the information in DNA is copied into RNA, another nucleic acid with a structure similar to DNA. This process is called transcription. In cells, DNA is contained within structures called chromosomes. Before cell division, chromosomes pair, during which DNA replication occurs. While eukaryotic organisms (i.e. Animal, plant, fungi and Protista) contain their DNA within the cell nucleus, in prokaryotic creatures (i.e. bacteria and archaea) DNA is located in the cell cytoplasm. Chromatin proteins (such as histones) found in chromosomes compress and organize DNA. These compact structures control which parts of the DNA are read by regulating the interactions between DNA and other proteins.



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